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Outdoor Glossary: F

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face
Front part of the head.

facial
disc- Rounded, earlike areas on the face. Synonym(s): ears.

facies
The sum total of features such as sedimentary rock type, mineral content, sedimentary structures, bedding characteristics, fossil content, etc. which characterise a sediment as having been deposited in a given environment.

fairway
The parts of a waterway kept open, and unobstructed, for navigation.

falkland Current
A South Atlantic Ocean current setting northeastward along the east coast of Argentina.

false cast
A cast in which the line is kept moving above the water's surface; used to progressively lengthen a cast, change the direction of a cast or dry a fly

fathom
A measure of water depth equal to 1.83 m (6 feet).

fault
A fracture in rock along which there has been an observable amount of displacement. Faults are rarely single planar units; normally they occur as parallel to sub-parallel sets of planes along which movement has taken place to a greater or lesser extent. Such sets are called fault or fracture-zones.

fauna
The communities of animals in an area; all of the animal life in a given region or period of time

fecundity
the number of young produced per female per unit of time.

feeder beach
An artificially widened beach serving to nourish downdrift beaches by natural littoral currents or other forces.

feeder current
The currents which flow parallel to shore before converging and forming the neck of a rip current.

feet
Terminal part of the leg.

felling
Cutting down trees.

ferrules
The joints that connect the sections of a multi-piece rod

fertilization
The union of male and female cells (e.g. sperm and egg) to form a new individual.

fetch
The length of unobstructed open sea surface across which the wind can generate waves.

fetch length
(1) The horizontal distance (in the direction of the wind) over which a wind generates seas or creates wind setup. (2) The horizontal distance along open water over which the wind blows and generates waves.

fiberglass
A durable, flexible material used to make rod blanks and components

filet knife
A thin, sharp knife used to clean and filet fish

fillet
In fish, a slice of meat without bones, cut out for human consumption

final cut
The removal of the last seed bearers or shelter trees after regeneration of new trees has been established in a stand being managed under the shelterwood system of silviculture.

fine filter management
Management that focuses on the welfare of a single or only a few species rather than the broader habitat or ecosystem. (See coarse filter management.)

finfish
A term used to separate true fish from shellfish, crayfish, jellyfish, etc.

fingerling
A young fish of about 10 cm length.

finning
Removal of the fins and discarding of the carcass. Usually done with sharks for the Chinese Shark Fin Soup

finrays
The supporting bony elements of fins, including spines and soft rays; all fin-supports are rays, whether segmented, unsegmented or spinous, but sometimes the term ray is used to denote soft rays only.

fire cycle
The average time between fires in a given area.

fire regime
The characteristics of fire in a given ecosystem, such as the frequency, predictability, intensity, and seasonality of fire.

first reduction
Method of determining high and low water heights, time intervals, and ranges from an arithmetic mean without adjustment to a long-term series through simultaneous observational comparisons.

fish block
A rectangular block of cohering frozen fish flesh, containing no skin and no bones

fisheries habitat
Streams, lakes, and reservoirs that support fish, or have the potential to support fish.

fishery
Term to describe the collective enterprise of taking fish, usually used in conjunction with reference to the species, gear or area involved.

fishfinder
An electric device that is used to detect fish beneath a boat. Also used to detect the geography of the land and the depth of the water

fishing effort
Amount of fishing taking place, usually described in terms of gear type and frequency or period for which it is use, e.g., hook-sets, trawl hours

fishmeal
Protein-rich animal feed product based on fish

fjord
A long, narrow arm of the sea, usually formed by entrance of the sea into a deep glacial trough.

flank
Area between the belly and the wings, more posterior.

flank stripe
Band on the flanks.

flatfish
Laterally compressed benthic fishes of the order Pleuronectifomes, including flounders, soles, and tonguefishes.

flathead catfish
Apaloosa Catfish, Mudcat, Yellow Cat, Granny Cat- Overall brown with shadings of gold or yellow. White tip on upper lobe of tail, head is wide and flat; tail is square. Sticks to deep holes and undercuts during the day; forages widely at night.

fleet
Ships sailing together; vehicles or aircraft under one command or ownership.

flight feathers
Primaries and secondaries.

float well
A stilling well in which the float of a float-actuated gauge operates. See stilling well.

floatant
A liquid, paste or powder substance applied to dry fliesand occasionally to fly lines and leadersto improve their ability to float.

floating bog
A grass or moss growth floating on a pool of water with high content of decayed vegetation, grass and moss roots.

flocculation
The change which takes place when the dispersed phase of a colloid forms a series of discrete particles which are capable of settling out from the dispersion medium. In geological processes, flocculation is almost inevitably a result of a colloidal solution mixing with a solution containing electrolytes, e.g., sea water.

flood
(1) Period when tide level is rising; often taken to mean the flood current which occurs during this period. (2) A flow above the carrying capacity of a channel.

flood axis
The average set of the tidal current at strength of flood.

flood current
The movement of a tidal current toward the shore or up a tidal stream. In the semidiurnal type of reversing current, the terms greater flood and lesser flood are applied respectively to the flood currents of greater and lesser velocity each day. The terms maximum flood and minimum flood are applied to the maximum and minimum velocities of a flood current the velocity of which alternately increases and decreases without coming to slack or reversing. The expression maximum flood is also applicable to any flood current at the time of greatest velocity.

flood interval
The interval between the transit of the moon over the meridian of a place and the time of the following flood.

flood mark
Proof of any kind on the shoreline used to determine the highest level attained by the water surface during the flood (note: the height of the flood mark usually includes the wave run-up).

flood plain
A lowland adjoining a watercourse. At a minimum, the area is subject to a 1% or greater chance of flooding in a given year.

flood routing
The attenuating effect of storage on a river-flood passing through a valley by reason of a feature acting as control (e.g. a reservoir with a spillway capacity less than the flood inflow, or the widening or narrowing of a valley).

flood strength
The flood current at time of maximum velocity. Also, the speed at this time. See strength of current.

flood tidal delta
The bulge of sand formed at the landward mouth of tidal inlets as a result of flow expansion.

flood tide
A nontechnical term used for rising tide or flood current. In technical language flood refers to current. The portion of the tidal cycle between low water and the following high water.

floodplain
(1) A flat tract of land bordering a river, mainly in its lower reaches, and consisting of alluvium deposited by the river. It is formed by the sweeping of the meander belts downstream, thus widening the valley, the sides of which may become some kilometers apart. In time of flood, when the river overflows its banks, sediment is deposited along the valley banks and plains. (2) (SMP) Synonymous with 100-year floodplain. The land area susceptible to being inundated by stream derived waters with a 1 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The limits of this area are based on flood regulation ordinance maps or reasonable method that meets the objectives of the SMP (WAC 173-22-030(2)).

flora
The entire group of plants found in an area.

Florida Current
A North Atlantic Ocean current setting northward along the south-east coast of the United States. A segment of the Gulf Stream System, the Florida Current extends from the Straits of Florida to the region off Cape Hatteras.

flow
The British equivalent of the United States total current. Flow is the combination of their tidal stream and current.

flushing time
The time required to remove or reduce (to a permissible concentration) any dissolved or suspended contaminant in an estuary or harbor.

fly
An artificial fishing lure that features an arrangement of materials tied onto a hook to imitate an aquatic or terrestrial insect, bait fish, leech or other food source

fly line
A specially designed line for fly fishing, usually 80 to 90 feet long. It supplies the weight needed to cast relatively weightless flies.

fly reel
The device that holds fly line. It gives the angler a mechanical drag system with which to exert resistance on hooked fish.

fly rod
The central element of any balanced fly-fishing outfit; it's used to cast the fly line, mend the line after the cast, and play hooked fish.

flyer
Slang term for a flying fish

foam
The light-colored substance which is made up of an aggregation of bubbles, formed on the surface of liquids by violent agitation.

foam line
(1) The front of a wave as it advances shoreward, after it has broken. (2) Lines of foam such as those which move around the head of a rip.

fog
Vapor condensed to fine particles of water and obscuring vision near the ground.

following wind
A wind blowing in the same direction as the waves are travelling.

forage
All browse and non-woody plants that are eaten by wildife and livestock.

forage species
Prey or food species of an animal

forb
A broadleaf plant that has little or no woody material in it.

forced wave
A wave generated and maintained by a continuous force. See gravity wave.

forceps
A pliers-like tool that locks closed. It is often used for crimping barbs on hooks and for removing flies from the mouths of fish; also called "hemostats."

foreground
The part of a scene or landscape that is nearest to the viewer.

forehead
Part of the face above the eyes.

foreneck
Front part of the neck. Synonym(s): throat, jugulum, throat patch.

foreshore
(1) The part of the shore, lying between the berm crest and the ordinary low water mark, which is ordinarily traversed by the uprush and backrush of the waves as the tides rise and fall. (2) The same as the beach face where unconsolidated material is present. (3) (SMP) In general terms, the beach between mean higher high water and mean lower low water.

forest cover type
See cover type.

forest health
A measure of the robustness of forest ecosystems. Aspects of forest health include biological diversity; soil, air, and water productivity; natural disturbances; and the capacity of the forest to provide a sustaining flow of goods and services for people.

forest roads and trails
Roads and trails under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service.

forest supervisor
The official responsible for administering National Forest lands on an administrative unit, usually one or more National Forests. The Forest Supervisor reports to the Regional Forester.

fortnight
The time elasped between the new and full moons. Half a synodic month of 14.765,294 days. See synodical month.

fourier series
A series proposed by the French mathematician Fourier about the year 1807. The series involves the sines and cosines of whole multiples of a varying angle and is usually written in the following form: y = Ho + A1 sin x + A2 sin 2x + A3 sin 3x + ... B1 cos x + B2 cos 2x + B3 cos 3x + ... By taking a sufficient number of terms the series may be made to represent any periodic function of x.

fragmentation
The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging.

freeboard
The additional height of a structure above design high water level to prevent overflow. Also, at a given time, the vertical distance between the water level and the top of the structure.

freshwater
Water found in lakes, streams, and rivers, but not the ocean

frontager
Person or persons owning, and often living in, property immediately landward of the beach.

frontal shield
Extension of the bill onto the forehead.

frost heave
A land surface that is pushed up by the accumulation of ice in the underlying soil.

fuels
Plants and woody vegetation, both living and dead, that are capable of burning.

fuels management
The treatment of fuels that would otherwise interfere with effective fire management or control. For instance, prescribed fire can reduce the amount of fuels that accumulate on the forest floor before the fuels become so heavy that a natural wildfire in the area would be explosive and impossible to control.

fuelwood
Wood cut into short lengths for burning.

fully-developed sea
The waves that form when wind blows for a sufficient period of time across the open ocean. The waves of a fully developed sea have the maximum height possible for a given wind speed, fetch and duration of wind.

function
All the processes within an ecosystem through which the elements interact, such as succession, the food chain, fire, weather, and the hydrologic cycle.

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