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Outdoor Glossary: R

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R2
Smaller solar elliptic constituent. This constituent, with T2, modulates the amplitude and frequency of S2 for the effect of variation in the Earth's orbital speed due to its elliptical orbit. Speed = 2T + h - p1 = 30.041,066,7 per solar hour.

race
very rapid current through a comparatively narrow channel

radar
An instrument for determining the distance and direction to an object by measuring the time needed for radio signals to travel from the instrument to the object and back, and by measuring the angle through which the instruments antenna has traveled.

radiational tide
Periodic variations in sea level primarily related to meteorological changes such as the semidaily (solar) cycle in barometric pressure, daily (solar) land and sea breezes, and seasonal (annual) changes in temperature. Other changes in sea level due to meteorological changes that are random in phase are not considered radiation Al tides.

radioactive dating (Radiometric dating)
the most reliable method of obtaining a date for a rock depends upon the observation that the rate of decay of a radioactive element is a constant. The earliest methods, using uranium and thorium minerals as the starting material, yielded evidence that the extent of geological time was at least 2 million years. The development of knowledge concerning radioactive processes since 1939 has made available a number of refined techniques for radioactive dating which are nowadays routine processes.

raised beach
A wave-cut platform, with or without a covering of beach materials, which is now raised above the present sea-level. See also rejuvenation.

random waves
The laboratory simulation of irregular sea states that occur in nature.

range
Land on which the principle natural plant cover is composed of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs that are valuable as forage for livestock and big game.

range management
The art and science of planning and directing range use intended to yield the sustained maximum animal production and perpetuation of the natural resources.

range of tide
The difference in height between consecutive high and low waters. The mean range is the difference between mean high water and mean low water. The great diurnal range or diurnalrange is the difference in height between mean higher high water (mhhw) and mean lower low water (mllw). Where the type of tide is diurnal, the mean range is the same as the diurnal range.

range of variability (Also called the historic range of variability or natural range of variation.)
The components of healthy ecosystems fluctuate over time. The range of sustainable conditions in an ecosystem is determined by time, processes (such as fire), native species, and the land itself. For instance, ecosystems that have a 10 year fire cycle have a narrower range of variation than ecosystems with 200-300 year fire cycle. Past management has placed some ecosystems outside their range of variability. Future management should move such ecosystems back toward their natural, sustainable range of variation.

ranger district
The administrative sub-unit of a National Forest that is supervised by a District Ranger who reports directly to the Forest Supervisor.

raptor
A bird of prey, such as a eagle or hawk.

raptors
birds of prey that feed on the flesh of others. For purpose of this publication, typical species are hawks, falcons, owls and eagles.

RARE II
Roadless Area Review and Evaluation. The national inventory of roadless and undeveloped areas within the National Forests and Grasslands.

rat
A slang term used to describe any fish that is very small

ratchet
The anti-reverse device on a spinning reel

ravinement
unconformaties in a transgressional sequence of deposits which take on a variety of forms based on wave energy and sediment supply.

reach
(1) An arm of the ocean extending into the land. (2) A straight section of restricted waterway of considerable extent; may be similar to a narrows, except much longer in extent.

real-time
Pertains to a data collecting system that controls an on-going process and delivers its outputs (or controls its inputs) not later than the time when these are needed for effective control.

REALDATA (Remote Electronic Access to Lake Data and Tidal Acquisition)
An IBM PC or compatible software program developed by the Ocean and Lake Levels Division, National Ocean Service (NOS), NOAA, to replace TIDES ABC. This program enables interrogation of NOS water level data at stations equipped with telephone telemetry along the coastal United States and the Great Lakes. The program generates graphical and tabular presentations of observed water levels and tide predictions (other than the Great Lakes) for periods covering one to six days. Two types of graphs are available: (1) observed data versus predicted data and (2) anomalies (observed minus predicted) versus predicted data.

recent
(Geological) A synonym of Holocene. See also quaternary.

recession
(1) A continuing landward movement of the shoreline. (2) A net landward movement of the shoreline over a specified time.

recharge
The addition of water to ground water by natural or artificial processes.

rectification
The process of producing, from a tilted or oblique photograph, a photograph from which displacement caused by tilt has been removed.

rectilinear current
Same as reversing current

rectrices
Conspicuous feathers forming posterior margin of tail.

red eye bass
Light in color with a white underside. Cark spot at base of tail. Eye red. Size: Common at 1-3 pounds. World record 8 pounds 12 ounces

red tide
Discoloration of surface waters, most frequently in coastal zones, caused by large concentrations of microorganisms.

red tide (water)
The term applied to toxic algal blooms caused by several genera of dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax) which turn the sea red and are frequently associated with a deterioration in water quality. The color occurs as a result of the reaction of a red pigment, peridinin, to light during photosynthesis. These toxic algal blooms pose a serious threat to marine life and are potentially harmful to humans. The term has no connection with astronomic tides. However, its association with the word "tide" is from popular observations of its movements with tidal currents in estuarine waters.

reduction factor (F)
Reciprocal of node factor (f).

reduction of tides or tidal currents
A processing of observed tide or tidal current data to obtain mean values for tidal or tidal current constants.

reef
A ridge of rock or other material lying just below the surface of the sea.

reef breakwater
Rubble mound of single-sized stones with a crest at or below sea level which is allowed to be (re)shaped by the waves.

reel foot
The foot of a reel seat that connects the reel to the reel seat on the handle of a fishing rod

reel seat
The section of a rod that clamps down the reel so it is secure

reference plane
The plane to which sounding and tidal data are referred.

reference point
(1) A specified location (in plan elevation) to which measurements are referred. (2) In beach material studies, a specified point within the reference zone.

reference station
A tide or current station for which tidal or tidal current constants have previously been determined and which is used as a standard for the comparison of simultaneous observations at a second station; also a station for which independent daily predictions are given in the tide or current tables from which corresponding predictions are obtained for other stations by means of differences or factors.

reference zone
In regard to beach measuring procedure, the part of the foreshore subject to wave action (between the limit of uprush and the limit of backwash) at mid-tide stage. In areas of great tidal range a more complex definition is needed.

reflected wave
That part of an incident wave that is returned (reflected) seaward when a wave impinges on a beach, seawall or other reflecting surface.

reflection
The process by which the energy of the wave is returned seaward.

reflection, seismic
See seismic reflection.

reflector
A surface, usually a rock or sediment layer, that strongly reflects seismic (sound) waves.

reforestation
The restocking of an area with forest trees, by either natural or artificial means, such as planting.

refraction
The process by which the direction of a wave moving in shallow water at an angle to the bottom contours is changed. The part of the wave moving shoreward in shallower water travels more slowly than that portion in deeper water, causing the wave to turn or bend to become parallel to the contours.

regeneration
The renewal of a tree crop by either natural or artificial means. The term is also used to refer to the young crop itself.

Regional Forester
The official of the USDA Forest Service responsible for administering an entire region of the Forest Service.

regular waves
Waves with a single height, period and direction.

relative mean sea level change
A local change in mean sea level relative to a network of bench marks established in the most stable and permanent material available (bedrock, if possible) on the land adjacent to the tide station location. A change in relative mean sea level may be composed of both an absolute mean sea level change component and a vertical land movement change component, together.

release cutting
Removal of competing vegetation to allow desired tree species to grow.

remiges
See primaries and secondaries.

removal cut
The removal of the last seed bearers or shelter trees after regeneration is established.

residual (water level)
The components of water level not attributable to astronomical effects.

residual current
The observed current minus the astronomical tidal current.

residual stand
The trees remaining standing after an event such as selection cutting.

resilience
The ability of an ecosystem to maintain diversity, integrity, and ecological processes following a disturbance.

resolution
(1) In general, a measure of the finest detail distinguishable in an object or phenomenon. (2) In particular, a measure of the finest detail distinguishable in an image. Retardation: The amount of time by which corresponding tidal phases grow later day by day (about 50 minutes).

responsible official
The Forest Service employee who has been delegated the authority to carry out a specific planning action.

restoration
refers to returning a resource to some prior condition by re-establishing ecological processes and functions.

restoration (of ecosystems)
Actions taken to modify an ecosystem to achieve a desired, healthy, and functioning condition.

return period
Average period of time between occurrences of a given event. Reversing tidal current: A tidal current that flows alternately in approximately opposite directions with a slack water at each reversal of direction. Currents of this type usually occur in rivers and straits where the direction of flow is more or less restricted to certain channels. When the movement is towards the shore, the current is said to be flooding, and when in the opposite direction it is said to be ebbing.

revegetation
The re-establishment and development of a plant cover by either natural or artificial means, such as re-seeding.

reversing current
A tidal current which flows alternately in approximately opposite directions with a slack water at each reversal of direction. Currents of this type usually occur in rivers and straits where the direction of flow is more or less restricted to certain channels. When the movement is towards the shore or up a stream, the current is said to be flooding, and when in the opposite direction, it is said to be ebbing. The combined flood and ebb movement (including the slack water) covers, on an average, 12.42 hours for a semi diurnal current. If unaffected by a non tidal flow, the flood and ebb movements will each last about 6 hours, but when combined with such a flow, the durations of flood and ebb may be quite different. During the flow in each direction the speed of the current will vary from zero at the time of slack water to a maximum about midway between the slacks.

reversing falls
A name applied to falls which flow alternately in opposite directions in a narrow channel in the St. John River above the city of St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, the phenomenon being due to the large range of tide and a constriction in the river. The direction of flow is upstream or downstream according to whether it is high or low water on the outside, the falls disappearing at the half-tide level.

revetment
(1) A facing of stone, concrete, etc., to protect an embankment, or shore structure, against erosion by wave action or currents. (2) A retaining wall. (3) (SMP) Facing of stone, concrete, etc., built to protect a scarp, embankment or shore structure against erosion by waves of currents.

revolving spool reel
Another term for a bait casting reel

rho
Larger lunar evectional diurnal constituent. Speed = T - 3s + 3h - p = 13.471,514,5 per solar hour.

rictal bristles
Stiffened feathers near bill.

rictus
Base of the bill where the mandibles join. Synonym(s): gape, commissure. In picture it is referred to as gape.

rill marks
Small drainage channels forming in the lower portion of a beach at low tide. Riparian: (1) Pertaining to the banks of a body of water. (2) (SMP) Of, on or pertaining to the banks of a river.

rings
The material located inside of the guides on a fishing rod in which the fishing line travels through

rings
Rings in the water are formed when the fish rise to the surface to catch some lunch. Look for these rings as you walk along the riverbank

rip
Agitation of water caused by the meeting of currents or by a rapid current setting over an irregular bottom. Termed tide rip when a tidal current is involved. See over falls.

rip current
A strong surface current of short duration flowing seaward from the shore. It usually appears as a visible band of agitated water and is the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves and wind. A rip current consists of three parts: the feeder current flowing parallel to the shore inside the breakers; the neck, where the feeder currents converge and flow through the breakers in a narrow band or "rip"; and the head, where the current widens and slackens outside the breaker line.

riparian
a term that refers to the habitat adjacent to streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands that is influenced by the presence of water.

riparian area
The area along a watercourse or around a lake or pond.

riparian ecosystem
The ecosystems around or next to water areas that support unique vegetation and animal communities as a result of the influence of water.

ripple
(1) The light fretting or ruffling on the surface of the water caused by a breeze. (2) The smallest class of waves and one in which the force of restoration is, to a significant degree, both surface tension and gravity.

ripple-drift bedding (Ripple-drift cross-bedding)
See cross-bedding. Ripple marks: Undulations produced by fluid movement over sediments. Oscillatory currents produce symmetric ripples whereas a well-defined current direction produces asymmetrical ripples. The crest line of ripples may be straight or sinuous. The characteristic features of ripples depend upon current velocity, particle size, persistence of current direction and whether the fluid is air or water. Sand dunes may be regarded as a special kind of super-ripple.

riprap
(1) Broken stones used for revetment, toe protection for bluffs, or structures exposed to wave action, foundations, etc. (2) Foundation of wall or stones placed together irregularly. (3) (SMP) A layer, facing or protective mound of stones placed to prevent erosion, scour or sloughing of a structure or embankment; also the stone so used.

rips
Agitation of water caused by the meeting of currents or by rapid current setting over an irregular bottom

risk analysis
Assessment of the total risk due to all possible environmental inputs and all possible mechanisms.

river
A natural stream of water larger than a brook or creek.

river current
The gravity-induced seaward flow of fresh water originating from the drainage basin of a river. In the fresh water portion of the river below head of tide, the river current is alternately increased and decreased by the effect of the tidal current. After entering a tidal estuary, river current is the depth averaged mean flow through any cross-section and finally, into the ocean. See head of tide and estuary.

river estuary
See estuary.

rocks
An aggregate of one or more minerals rather large in area. The three classes of rocks are the following: (1) Igneous rock crystalline rocks formed from molten material. Examples are granite and basalt. (2) Sedimentary rock A rock resulting from the consolidatrion of loose sediment that has accumulated in layers. Examples are sandstone, shale and limestone. (3) Metamorphic rock Rock that has formed from preexisting rock as a result of heat or pressure.

ROD
Record of Decision. A official document in which a deciding official states the alternative that will be implemented from a prepared EIS.

roll cast
A type of cast generally employed when there is no room for a standard back-cast

roller
(1) An indefinite term, sometimes considered to denote one of a series of long-crested waves which roll in upon a coast, as after a storm. (2) Long, high swell, also called a ground swell.

roller guide
A heavy duty big game style guide with an internal bearing system that eliminates heat and abrasion on fishing line.

roller tip top
A heavy duty big game style tip top with an internal bearing system that eliminates heat and abrasion on fishing line.

ROS
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum. The land classification system that categorizes land by its setting and the probable recreation experiences and activities it affords.

rotary current
A tidal current that flows continually with the direction of flow changing through all points of the compass during the tidal period. Rotary currents are usually found offshore where the direction of flow is not restricted by any barriers. The tendency for the rotation in direction has its origin in the Coriolis force and, unless modified by local conditions, the change is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern. The speed of the current usually varies throughout the tidal cycle, passing through the two maxima in approximately opposite directions and the two minima with the direction of the current at approximately 90 from the directions of the maxima.

rotation
The number of years required to establish and grow timber crops to a specified condition of maturity.

roundwood
Timber and fuelwood prepared in the round state, such as house logs and telephone poles.

ruffs
Fringe of feathers growing on the neck.

ruminants
hooved mammals possessing a rumen; includes members of the deer and cattle families- deer, elk, sheep, mountain sheep, and moose.

rump
Area between the uppertail coverts and the back.

run
off- The portion of precipitation that flows over the land surface or in open channels.

run-up
the rush of water up a structure or beach on the breaking of a wave. The amount of run-up is the vertical height above stillwater level that the rush of water reaches.

runnel
A corrugation or trough formed in the foreshore or in the bottom just offshore by waves or tidal currents.

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